On the finish of World Warfare II, as Europe lay in ruins, so too did its “mental panorama,” notes the Residing Philosophy video above. Within the midst of this “mental crater” a variety of nice thinkers debated “the blueprint for the long run.” Feminist thinker and novelist Simone de Beauvoir put it bluntly: “We had been to offer the postwar period with its ideology.” Two names — De Beauvoir’s companion Jean-Paul Sartre and his pal Albert Camus — got here to outline that ideology within the philosophy broadly often called Existentialism.
The 2 first met in Paris in 1943 throughout the Nazi occupation. They had been already “deeply acquainted” with each other’s work and shared a mutual respect and admiration as critics and reviewers of one another and as fellow resistance members. Each “mental giants” had been focused by the FBI, and each would go on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature (although Sartre rejected his). Their fame would proceed into the postwar years, regardless of Camus’ retreat from philosophical writing after the publication of The Insurgent.
Whereas we’ve beforehand introduced you tales of their friendship, and its bitter finish, the video above digs deeper into the Sartre-Camus rivalry, with crucial historic context for his or her pondering. Their preliminary falling out came about over The Insurgent, which championed an moral individualism and critiqued the morality of revolutionary violence. As a substitute of exploring suicide, as he had performed in The Fantasy of Sisyphus, right here Camus explores the issue of homicide, concluding that — outdoors of maximum circumstances like a Nazi invasion — violent political means don’t justify their ends.
The e-book provoked Sartre, a doctrinaire Marxist, who had issued what Camus thought-about feeble defenses for Joseph Stalin’s purges and gulags. A collection of scathing evaluations and indignant ripostes adopted. The private tone of those assaults chilled what little heat remained between them. When the Algerian warfare for independence erupted a couple of years later, the staunchly anti-colonialist Sartre took the aspect of Algeria’s Nationwide Liberation Entrance (FLN), excusing acts of violence towards civilians and rival factions as justified by French oppression. Such occasions “had been past justification within the thoughts of Camus.”
Whereas Sartre belittled Camus as “a criminal,” the “acuteness of the scenario was all of the stronger for Camus since Algeria was his homeland. He couldn’t see it within the ideological warped black and white of Sartre’s circle or the conservative French authorities.” The assertion may sum up all of Camus’ thought. As Sartre lastly conceded in a posthumous tribute; he “represented in our time the most recent instance of that lengthy line of moralistes whose works represent maybe probably the most unique component in French letters…. he reaffirmed… towards the Machiavellians and towards the Idol of realism, the existence of the ethical difficulty,” in all its complicated ambiguity and uncertainty.
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