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Dvara Analysis Weblog | DVARA-IMN BOCW Sequence


Dvara Analysis & India Migration Now


Inside migrants type a vital a part of the casual labour drive, primarily employed in building.[1]  The development sector in India employs roughly 51 million people and contributes to 9% of India’s GDP, making it probably the most essential sectors of the Indian economic system. Nevertheless, the casual nature of labor on this sector renders its staff most susceptible.

To present social safety and secure working situations to staff, the Authorities of India enacted the Constructing and Different Development Staff’ (regulation of employment and situations of service) Act, 1996 (BoCW).[2] Underneath the BOCW Act, each state authorities is directed to arrange a state-level BOCW Board and BOCW Welfare Fund. Employers of building staff are required to pay the BOCW Cess, which facilitates the social safety advantages offered by the BOCW Board.

The ambit of the Act covers many classes of staff – unskilled, semi-skilled, and expert, together with these inside supervisory, technical, or clerical roles. In the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, state governments had been requested to help building staff registered beneath the state BOCW Board by utilising the cess fund.[3] Whereas a number of states initiated the method of Direct Profit Transfers to registered staff, it continues to exclude a big proportion of the development workforce that’s not registered and therefore unable to entry advantages beneath the BOCW Act.

Together with inadequacies in implementing the BOCW Act, there’s a want to grasp the position of all stakeholders concerned within the registration course of. Employers, contractors, unions, labour officers and different intermediaries can present proof for the exclusion building staff face within the registration and as beneficiaries.

Overview of Analysis Research

We labored to grasp the end-to-end journey to entry the entitlements beneath the BOCW Act. We targeted on 4 districts of Maharashtra, a state with the very best variety of interstate migrants in India.[4] The groups mapped out the beneficiaries’ exclusions confronted at totally different levels based mostly on the Dvara Analysis Exclusion Framework that outlines varied axes and levels of exclusion in Direct Profit Transfers.[5] Our key analysis questions had been:

1. What are the assorted entry-level obstacles that eligible[6] staff face whereas making an attempt to register themselves within the BOCW Welfare Board of Maharashtra?

2. What are the assorted challenges that registered staff face whereas making an attempt to entry the entitlements beneath the BOCW Act in Maharashtra?

  • What are the particular challenges confronted by feminine migrant staff whereas making an attempt to entry the entitlements as a consequence of them beneath the BOCW Act in Maharashtra?
  • What are the challenges that stakeholders like civil society organisations, commerce unions, non-public sector firms and authorities representatives face when facilitating staff’ entry to the BOCW card in Maharashtra?

To reply these analysis questions, we performed key informant interviews with building staff, business companions and organisations in Maharashtra that facilitate staff’ BOCW registration.  We interviewed a complete of 56 staff by way of telephonic and in-person mode. The staff developed the interview information by way of a radical evaluation of the literature and previous discipline expertise with building staff in Maharashtra. We performed the in-person interviews of staff within the district of Thane by way of a discipline go to to a labour Naka within the district. The examine additionally concerned key informant interviews with 4 non-profit organisations and staff’ unions that function in Maharashtra, significantly within the Mumbai area. We recognized the organisations based mostly on their engagement with migrant staff in Maharashtra and their involvement within the BOCW registration for building staff. The organisations and unions interviewed had been concerned at a grassroots degree with staff within the unorganised sector, together with building staff who discover work at labour nakas – a colloquial time period for a labour junction.

This examine goals to offer policymakers and researchers with a complete overview of the assorted impediments that actors inside the BOCW ecosystem face. We hope that the examine’s findings can information stakeholders to streamline the Act’s implementation.

On this collection’s subsequent set of weblog posts, we are going to present challenges and gaps within the BoCW Act implementation and spotlight the viewpoints of a number of stakeholders within the BoCW Act registration and repair supply.

[1] Kumar, S., & Fernandez, M. (2015). Urbanisation-Development-Migration Nexus in 5 cities in South Asia. LSE. Useful resource doc

[2] Development work, in accordance with Nationwide Industrial Classification, 2008, comes beneath 3 main classes –

  • Development of buildings,
  • Civil engineering works (roads, railways, utility initiatives), and 
  • Specialised building actions like demolition, website preparation, and set up actions.

[3] Press Belief of India, Ministry of Labour & Employment, 2020. Retrieved from Ministry of Labour & Employment

[4] Census of India (2011): Migration. Retrieved 8 March 2022, from:

[5] Retrieved from

[6] As per the Maharashtra BOCW welfare board, a employee is eligible if they’re between 18 to 60 years of age, have labored for greater than 90 days within the final 12 months in Maharashtra, have proof of residence, id and Aadhar card. Retrieved from

Cite this merchandise:


Dvara Analysis, I. M. (2022). DVARA-IMN BOCW Sequence. Retrieved from Dvara Analysis.


Dvara Analysis, India Migration Now. “DVARA-IMN BOCW Sequence.” 2022. Dvara Analysis.


Dvara Analysis, India Migration Now. 2022. “DVARA-IMN BOCW Sequence.” Dvara Analysis.



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